Review: Low Agricultural Productivity in Nigeria

2. Our Inability to Compete

A review of Nigeria’s low agricultural productivity

Nigeria’s low agricultural productivity – Yield per hectare


Comparison of Nigeria’s yields across all crops versus other leading agricultural countries

Fig 15: Index of crop yields relative to Nigeria’s yields in 1961 (Insert: Annual Growth rates)


Fig 16: Nigeria’s low fertilizer utilization


Fig 17: Nigeria’s low utilization of improved seeds


a. Mechanization intensity: 10 tractors per 100Ha compared to Indonesia with 241 tractors per 100Ha
b. Irrigation: 0.8% of arable land irrigated compared to Thailand’s 28% of arable land irrigated


The role of government expenditure in agricultural growth – Asia versus Nigeria


Agricultural growth trends and government expenditure – Nigeria versus Asia



Fig 18: Per capita agricultural growth in production


Agriculture budget as a percentage of total government expenditure by region



Fig 19: Agriculture budget as a percentage of total government expenditure by region


  • Malaysia, Thailand and China all experienced significant growth in agricultural production per capita.
  • Conversely, Nigeria’s agricultural production per capita has stagnated and has been declining rapidly over the last decade
  • The driver of Asia’s growth was significant government investment
  • Asia invested up to 16% of their national budget in agriculture to lay the foundation for broader economic growth and industrialization.
  • Nigeria’s investment is exceptionally low averaging approximately 2% of government expenditure


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